St. Mary's University
Blume Library & Learning Assistance Center
Documenting Electronic Sources
APSA Style
[American Political Science Association]
General Guidelines
Source types:
  • Electronic subscription sources
  • Freely available electronic journal article
  • Freely available Web documents/Web sites
  • Legal cases
  • Other full-text databases
  • Numeric databases
  • Abstract from a Database
  • E-mail
  • Further information
  • General Guidelines

    (1) Save all documents used for research. If you don't print out the information, at least save it to a disk. Information on the Internet might be removed or moved to another site when you try to find it later.

    (2) Refer to a printed source, if available. Many Internet sources originated from print sources. The print source may contain more information than an abbreviated electronic version.

    (3) Whenever possible, opt for a signed article. If no byline is given for information you want to cite, e-mail the Webmaster for the source of the information and explain why you need it.

    (4) Research the author's credibility. Try to find biographical information or other material the author has written. If you can't find this in print or electronic sources, you may need to contact the author, through e-mail or other means, to find this information or to ask the author which version of his or her text is most authoritative.

    (5) Find out from your professor which style format s/he prefers.

    Disclaimer: There is not complete agreement among the guides presently available in citing electronic sources. These examples are simply provided as a guideline. Whichever format you follow, make sure that you are consistent throughout your work.

    Additional information may be provided by the Learning Assistance Center (LAC) [3rd Floor, Blume Library] (436-3203) or a Reference Librarian (436-3508).

    Note: Many of the links below will work only on the St. Mary's University campus.

    References
    Electronic subscription sources (LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Academic Search Premier/i>, etc.)

    Basic form

    Author. Year. "Article Title." Journal Title or Information Source
         Volume number(Issue number): Number of pages or paragraphs (if given),
         or n. pag. (for no pagination). Information Service. Accessed: date
         <URL>.
    Author. Year. Report Title. Date Month. Information Service. Accessed:
         date <URL>.
    Example
    Digital Equipment Corp. 1996. Annual Report to Stockholders.
         4 October--filing date. LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Category: Company
         Financial Information. Accessed: 30 September 1997
         <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>.
    Digital Equipment Corp. 1996. Form 10-K. 20 September--filing date.
         LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Category: Company Financial Information.
         Accessed: 30 September 1997 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>.
    Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1997. Statement of Financial Accounting Standards
    
        No. 130: Reporting Comprehensive Income. June--issue date.  CCH Internet
    
        Research Network, Category: Securities. Accessed: 13 March 2001
    
        <http://business.cch.com/primesrc/bin/highwire.dll>.
    Isaac, James D., Carol Sansone, and Jessi L. Smith. 1999. "Other People as a Source
    
        of Interest in an Activity." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
        35(3): 239-265. IDEAL. Accessed: 7 June 1999 <http://www.idealibrary.com>.
    "Job, the Book of." 1997. Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
         Accessed: 20 October 1997 <http://www.eb.com:180>.
    "Lessing, Doris (May)." 1998. Contemporary Authors. Gale Literary Databases.
    
         Accessed: 13 October 1998 <http://www.galenet.com/>.
    Turetzky, Marc David. 2000. "The Presidency and National Security:
        Presidential Foreign Policymaking, 1945-1999." Congress and the Presidency
        27(1): 93-100. Academic Search Premier.
        Accessed: 9 July 2001 <http://ehostvgw10.epnet.com>.
    Vogel, Gretchen. 2001. "Human Cloning Plans Spark Talk of U.S. Ban." Science
         292(5514): 31. Academic Search Premier. Accessed: 9 July 2001
         <http://ehostvgw10.epnet.com>.
    Weeks, Linton. 1997. "Spares and Strikes." Washington Post 5 June, 651
         words. LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Category: General News Topics. Accessed:
         30 September, 1997 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>.
    * Hint: To get an accurate URL in your citation, highlight and copy (Ctrl/C) the address from the location bar and paste (Ctrl/V) it into your document.
    Electronic journal article (freely available)

    Basic form

    Author. Year. Article Title. [Number of pages or paragraphs (if given),
         or n. pag. (for no pagination)]. Journal Title, Volume number
         (Issue number)  Accessed: date <URL>.
    Example
    Abram, Stephen, and Rebecca Jones. 2001. "Intelligent Conferences: Reality or Oxymoron?"
    
        Searcher 9(1): 6 pages. Accessed: 8 March 2001
    
        <http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/jan01/abram&jones.htm>.
    Web Site

    Basic form

    Author/editor. Year. Title of page. Last update or copyright date, if
         available. Information Supplier. Accessed: date <URL>.
    Homepage Title. Last update or copyright date, if available. Information
         supplier. Accessed: date <URL>.
    Example
    Digital Equipment Corp. 1996. Form 10-K. 20 September--filing date.
         Securities and Exchange Commission. Accessed: 28 January 1997
         <http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/28887/0000950135-96-004030.txt>.
    Patagonia. Patagonia. Accessed: 8 March 2001 <http://www.patagonia.com/>.
    Seid, Timothy W. 2001. Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts Web.
        19 January--last update. Brown University. Accessed: 8 Mar. 2001
    
         <http://www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/interp_mss.html>.
    Taco Cabana, Inc. 2000. 1999 Annual Report. May--creation date.
        Taco Cabana, Inc. Accessed: 8 March 2001
    
         <http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/NSD/TACO/reports/taco_000508_200_120.pdf>.
    Turner, William. 1999--copyright. "Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus."
    
        The Catholic Encyclopedia. Transcriber Kevin Cawley. New Advent.
        Accessed: 8 March 2001 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02610b.htm>.
    Legal Cases

    Basic form

    Petitioner v. Respondent. Year. Volume Source First Page.
    Petitioner v. Respondent. Year. Volume Source First Page. Information
    Example
    Cisneros v. Alpine Ridge Group. 1993. 508 U.S. 10.
    Cisneros v. Alpine Ridge Group. 1993. 508 U.S. 10. LEXIS-NEXIS Academic
        Universe, Category: Federal Case Law. Accessed: 31 March 1998
         <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>.
    Cisneros v. Alpine Ridge Group. 1993. 508 U.S. 10. FindLaw. Accessed:
         31 March 1998 <http://caselaw.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/
         getcase.pl?court=US&vol=508&invol=10#>.
    National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley. 1998. 118 S.Ct. 2168.
        LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Category: Federal Case Law. Accessed:
        9 October 1998 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe>.
    National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley. 1998. No. 97-371 [U.S.]. FindLaw.
        Accessed: 9 October 1998 <http://caselaw.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/
        getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=97-371>.
    Other full-text databases

    Basic form

    Author. Year. "Title of Document." Date of material. Database or Information
         Source. Vendor. Accessed: date <URL>.
    Author. Year. "Title of Document." [Medium] Date of material. Database or
         Information Source. Vendor.
    Example
    Bogdanowicz, Ewa. 2001. "Poland - Footwear." 1 January. National Trade
    
         Data Bank. STAT-USA. Accessed: 13 March 2001 <http://www.stat-usa.gov>.
    United States. International Trade Administration. 1996. "Mexico: Monterrey
         Economic News." [CD-ROM] 16 August. National Trade Data Bank.  U.S.
         Department of Commerce.
    Numeric databases (Research Insight (formerly Compustat), FISonline)

    Basic form

    Author/editor (if known). Date. Title. Information Source (Version)
         [Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.
    Information Source (Version) [CD-ROM]. Date. Place of Publication: Publisher.
    Example
    Research Insight (Version 7.6) [CD-ROM]. 2000. New York: Standard & Poor’s.
    {Research Insight was formerly known as Compustat}.
    FISonline 2001. New York: Mergent FIS.
    * Hint: For Windows-based CD-ROM products, go to Help, then About... for information about the version and product.
    Abstract from a Database

    Basic form

    Author. Year. "Article Title." Periodical Title volume(issue): pages.
         Abstract from: Information Source. Accessed: date <URL>.
    Author. Year. "Article Title" [Medium]. Periodical Title volume(issue):
         pages. Abstract from: Information Source.
    Example
    Brier, Bob. 2001. "A Thoroughly Modern Mummy." Archaeology 54(1): 44-51.
        Abstract from: Academic Search Premier. Accessed: 9 July 2001
        <http://ehostvgw10.epnet.com>.
    Noel, Emile. 1995. "Future Prospects for Europe." Government and Opposition
    
        30(4): 452-468. Abstract from: International Political Science
    
        Abstracts. Accessed: 19 April 2001
    
        <http://webspirs3.silverplatter.com/cgi-bin/customers/c14811/c14811.cgi>.
    Wald, Gayle. 1998. "Just a girl? Rock music, feminism, and the
        cultural construction of female youth." [CD-ROM]. Signs 23(3): 585-610.
        Abstract from: Social Sciences Abstracts.
    E-mail

    Basic form

    Author. Year. "Subject of Message" [Length] Posting Date. Discussion List
         [Online posting]. Accessed: date <DISCUSSION LIST@e-mail address>.
    Example
    Boulton, Ron. 1995. "Explosion Proof Refrigerator?" [5 paragraphs]. 21 July.
        Safety [Online posting]. Accessed: 31 July 1995 <e-mail:
        SAFETY@uvmvm.uvm.edu>.


    For further information

    Kelly, Jean P., Michael K. Lane and Susan C. Angel. 1993. "Style Manual for Political Science." In Political Science: Illustrated Search Strategy and Sources, Roger C. Lowery and Sue A. Cody. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press.  REF JA 86 .L69 1993

    * See also recent issues of political science journals, e.g., American Political Science Review, American Journal of Political Science, etc. for examples of citations and submission guidelines.

    Chicago
    Chicago Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. REF Z 253 .U69 1993

    Turabian, Kate L. 1996. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. REF LB 2369 .T8 1996
    Other Guides

    Garner, Diane L., and Diane H. Smith. 1993. The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources: A Manual for Writers & Librarians. Rev. ed. Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service. REF Z 7164 .G7 G37 1993

    Li, Xia and Nancy B. Crane. 1996. Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information. 2nd ed. Medford, NJ: Information Today. REF DESK


    created April 6, 1998 by Diane M. Duesterhoeft <dduesterhoeft@stmarytx.edu>; updated July 10, 2001 by Necia Wolff
    The URL for this page is <http://library.stmarytx.edu/acadlib/subject/misc/eldoapsa.htm>.